In 2012, Touré joined the Kiel Green Youth, and was elected as its speaker in 2013. In 2016, she was elected as an assessor in her state's green party, an office she held until her election to the Landtag in 2017.
Touré was a candidate for the Schleswig-Holstein Green Youth in the 2017 Schleswig-Holstein state election and was number 11 on the party's electoral list. She also simultaneously ran for the single-seat constituency of Neumünster. Touré did not enter the Landtag following the election, as the Green Party only received ten seats; Touré later filled the seat vacated by Monika Heinold, who was named Minister of Finance of Schleswig-Holstein. Within her state parliamentary faction, she is the speaker for Migration, Women & Equality, Children & Youth, LGBT Issues, and Anti-Racism.
Upon Rasmus Andresen's departure for the European Parliament in June 2019, his office as vice-president of the Landtag was vacant, and Touré was elected by the coalition to succeed him on 28 August 2019. She is the first Afro-German, as well as the youngest, Vice President of a Landtag.
In the negotiations to form a coalition government between the SPD, the Green Party and Free Democratic Party (FDP) following the 2021 federal elections, Touré was part of her party's delegation in the working group on equality, co-chaired by Petra Köpping, Ricarda Lang and Herbert Mertin.
Touré was nominated by her party as delegate to the Federal Convention for the purpose of electing the President of Germany in 2022.
After the 2022 Schleswig-Holstein state election, Touré's party, Alliance '90/The Greens entered into a coalition with the CDU under Minister-President Daniel Günther (CDU). Touré has been appointed on 29 June 2022 as Minister of Social Affairs, Youth, Family, Senior Citizens, Integration and Equality in the Second Günther cabinet, replacing Heiner Garg (FDP).